287 - 212 BC
was an ancient Greek mathematician and philosopher born in the seaport colony of Syracuse, Magna Graecia, what is now Sicily. He is considered by most historians of mathematics as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. He discovered pi, specific gravity. He is best known for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder, for discovering PI, for "Archimedes' principle" (specific gravity) and for inventing the Archimedes screw which is the basis of rotorblades and propellers.
Archimedes Principal states: an object immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force that is equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on the displaced fluid. Legend has it that Archimedes discovered his famous theory of buoyancy while taking a bath. He was so excited that he ran naked through the streets of Syracuse shouting "Eureka, eureka (i.e. I have found it)!".
He also invented things such as the hydraulic screw - for raising water from a lower to a higher level, the catapult, the lever, the compound pulley and the burning mirror.
In mechanics Archimedes discovered fundamental theorems concerning the center of gravity of plane figures and solids.
He played an important role in the defense of Syracuse against the siege laid by the Romans in 213 BC by constructing war machines so effective that they long delayed the capture of the city. Archimedes was killed when Syracuse was eventually captured by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus in the autumn of 212 BC.
We honor Archimedes in naming this museum after him.
The famous drawing by Leonardo Da Vinci depicting a "man powered" Helicopter utilizes 'Archimedes Screw'.